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1 edition of Honeycomb and ring failure in bacterially infected red oak lumber after kiln drying found in the catalog.

Honeycomb and ring failure in bacterially infected red oak lumber after kiln drying

Honeycomb and ring failure in bacterially infected red oak lumber after kiln drying

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Published by Forest Products Laboratory, Forest Service, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture in Madison, Wis .
Written in English

    Subjects:
  • Red oak -- Diseases and pests

  • Edition Notes

    Statementby J.C. Ward ... [et al.]
    SeriesResearch paper FPL / U.S.D.A. Forest Service -- 165, Research paper FPL -- 165
    ContributionsWard, J. C, Forest Products Laboratory (U.S.)
    The Physical Object
    Pagination36 p. :
    Number of Pages36
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL14841226M

      Kiln-drying Air-drying with mild schedule Defect type WW [a] HW [b] WW HW (%) Honeycombing 26 10 43 10 Surface checks 23 23 37 30 Ring failure 15 0 24 20 End checks and splits 44 30 37 30 Collapse 22 0 21 0 Kiln-drying with accelerated schedule Commercial schedule Defect type WW HW WW HW Honeycombing 60 40 55 27 Surface checks 61 20 54 33 Ring. Ward J C, Hann R A, Baltes R C, Bulgrin B H Honeycomb and ring failure in bacterially infected red oak timber after kiln drying. USDA For Serv Res Pap FPL , 36 pp Google Scholar

    McGinnes, E.A. Jr., Wu, K.Y-T. (). Intra-incremental chemical studies of Ring Shake in Scarlet Oak. Wood Sci. 5 (4), Honeycomb and ring failure in bacterially infected red oak lumber after kiln drying. USDA Forest Service Research Paper FLP 37pp. Lumber Drying. Air-drying Before lumber is used, it should be dried. As a minimal requirement, air drying should be carried out. Building codes usually allow a maximum of 19 percent m.c. which can be easily obtained by air-drying during the summer. Air-drying requires holding lumber .

      In pathology, honeycomb lung refers to the characteristic appearance of variably sized cysts in a background of densely scarred lung tissue. Microscopically, enlarged airspaces surrounded by fibrosis with hyperplastic or bronchiolar type epithelium are present. [] However, these changes are nonspecific and are often seen in numerous end-stage interstitial lung diseases (ILDs). []. Red Oak. Quercus rubra, spp. Red Oak is probably the most widely used and abundant hardwood in the eastern United States. Oak has a characteristic ring porous grain pattern; the wood is heavy, hard and stiff. The heartwood of Red Oak ranges in color from "wheat" to a .


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Honeycomb and ring failure in bacterially infected red oak lumber after kiln drying Download PDF EPUB FB2

Honeycomb and ring failure occurred in bacterially infected heartwood dried under both schedules, but this degrade was more severe in the faster dried material.

The loss from honeycomb and ring failure in infected boards grading No. 1 Common and Better was per­ cent for the mild schedule and percent for the accelerated schedule.

Honeycomb and ring failure in bacterially infected red oak lumber after kiln drying by,Forest Products Laboratory, Forest Service, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture edition, in EnglishPages: Honeycomb and ring failure in bacterially infected red oak lumber after kiln drying.

Madison, Wis.: Forest Products Laboratory, Forest Service, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, i.e. (OCoLC) drying green 4/4 northern red oak lumber containing bacterially infected heartwood.

This type of lumber is more likely to develop serious honeycomb, surface checks, and ring failure during kiln drying under normally mild schedules than is green lumber with normal.

noninfected heartwood. First, bacterially infected lumber should be. Honeycomb and ring failure in bacterially infected red oak lumber after kiln drying / by J.C. Ward [et al.]. Abstract. 36 p. Topics: Quercus rubra--Diseases and pests. Honeycomb and Ring Failure in Bacterially Infected Red Oak Lumber After Kiln Drying by J.C.

Ward, R.A. Hann, R.C. Baltes, and E.H. Bulgrin. USDA Forest Service Forest Products Laboratory. Research paper FPL Bacterially infected red oak must be dried more carefully to prevent deep surface checks, honeycomb, and ring failure. A dry kiln schedule for BI red oak was used according to the Dry Kiln Operator’s Manual (Simpson ) and was incorporated.

honeycomb and ring failure in red and black of bacterially infected and noninfected lumber before kiln-drying.

On average, this NDE technique correctly identified 84 percent of bacterially. I am having problems drying 4/4 and 5/4 red oak in upgraded computerized kilns by Nardi. I find boards throughout the kiln charge with varying moisture content. One end of the board will read 6%, the middle of the board will read 6%, the other end of the board will read 20%.

Consequently, oak lumber containing wetwood (also called bacterial oak) is more prone than normal (un­ infected) oak lumber to develop honeycomb, ring shake, and deep surface checks when kiln. lumber from North American oaks. After kiln drying oak green from the saw, itappears reasonable that bacterial boards are present in the charge when losses from honeycomb and ring failure exceed three percent of the total lumber volume (Ward and Groom ).

Monetary losses from drying bacterially infected 4/4 red oak in a 60 MBP kiln will. Seasoning is the process of drying lumber (either in a kiln or air drying) to an appropriate level of moisture for woodworking and other commercial uses.

During this process, a board may become. Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) drying tests showed that accelerating kiln-dry­ ing of red oak at elevated temperatures increases the incidence of honeycomb in normal lumber. However, losses from. In green lumber, the bacterial infection called wetwood (a signifi­ cant source of degradation in oak at the kiln-drying stage) was found with high accuracy using time-of-flight techniques.

A. Yes. In fact with the hot, dry summer we had inthere is a lot of oak lumber that dried too quickly, creating surface checks which then went deeper as the fast drying continued. largely responsible for the unexpected occurrence of honeycomb and ring failure during drying.

It now appears that bacterial infections in red oak lumber may account for much degrade that has heretofore been attributed to the so-called inherent variability in drying.

Our work on the kiln drying of bacterially infected red oak is de. Ward, at the FPL. had found that heartwood infections by anaerobic bacteria in red and black oak trees can result in development of honeycomb and ring failure in 4/4 lumber under normally mild kiln-drying conditions (Ward ,Wardet al.

a rancid drying under regular mild kiln-drying schedules, this bacteria-weakened wood will degrade and cause honeycomb and ring failure. Research is underway at the Forest Products Laboratory to find methods of drying infected wood and identifying and isolating bacterially infectedinfected logs or lumber could.

The BI red oak must be dried more carefully to prevent deep surface checks, honeycomb, and ring failure (USDA ). A BI red oak dry kiln schedule was given in the Dry Kiln Operator’s Manual () and was incorporated into this study as the “conventional” schedule for red oak.

Lumber from the tree may also appear normal, but when the green wood is kiln dried, it usually develops checks, ring failure, or honeycomb, and large economic losses result.

Therefore, developing a rapid and reliable method to detect wetwood in tree stems before they are processed into lumber is important. Five-quarter red oak lumber (Quer-cus sp.) was obtained, fresh] y cut, from a sawmill in coastal South Carolina. The lumber was transported in an enclosed van to Clemson University, Clemson, S.C, where it was processed and then kiln-dried in a laboratory dry kiln.

Two separate charges of red oak lumber were collected and kiln-dried to an MC of.Shigo, A.L.: Successions of microorganisms and patterns of discoloration and decay after wounding in red oak and white oak.

Phytopathology 62(), – CrossRef Google Scholar.under regular mild kiln-drying schedules, this bacteria-weakened wood will degrade and cause honeycomb and ring failure.

Research is underway at the Forest Products Laboratory in Madison to find methods of drying infected wood and identifying.